Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Argument from authority fallacy - Educate yoursel!!!!

Very common argument /logical fallacy -> ignore logic and deflect to an untouchable authority (often stats are used for this - and we all know that stats are ...er... at best unrelaiable in argument)

I do disagree with the valid form aspect below that descfribes 'consensus' as being a necessary part of the argument.  Logic is not consensus; not democratic - either right, wrong or indeterminant

Argument from authority

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Argument from authority (argumentum ad verecundiam), also authoritative argument and appeal to authority, is an inductive-reasoning argument that often takes the form of a statistical syllogism.[1] Although certain classes of argument from authority can constitute strong inductive arguments, the appeal to authority is often applied fallaciously: either the authority is not a subject-matter expert, or there is no consensus among experts in the subject matter, or both.[1][2][3]



[edit] Forms

The argument from authority (argumentum ad verecundiam) can take several forms. As a statistical syllogism, the argument has the following basic structure: [1]
Most of what authority A has to say on subject matter S is correct.
A says P about subject matter S.
Therefore, P is correct.
The strength of this authoritative argument depends upon two factors: [1][2]
  1. The authority is a legitimate expert on the subject.
  2. There exists consensus among legitimate experts in the subject matter under discussion.
The two factors — legitimate expertise and expert consensus — can be incorporated to the structure of the statistical syllogism, in which case, the argument from authority can be structured thus: [2]
X holds that A is true.
X is a legitimate expert on the subject matter.
The consensus of subject-matter experts agrees with X.
Therefore, there exists a presumption that A is true.

[edit] Fallacious appeal to authority

Fallacious arguments from authority often are the result of failing to meet at least one of the required two conditions (legitimate expertise and expert consensus) structurally required in the forms of a statistical syllogism.[1][2] First, when the inference fails to meet the first condition (inexpert authority), it is an appeal to inappropriate authority, which occurs when an inference relies upon a person or a group without relevant expertise or knowledge of the subject matter under discussion.[3]
Second, because the argument from authority is an inductive-reasoning argument — wherein is implied that the truth of the conclusion cannot be guaranteed by the truth of the premises — it also is fallacious to assert that the conclusion must be true.[2] Such a determinative assertion is a logical non sequitur, because, although the inductive argument might have merit — either probabilistic or statistical — the conclusion does not follow unconditionally, in the sense of being logically necessary.[4][5]

Straw man argument -Educate yourself!!!

One of the most used argumentative fallacies - misrepresenting your oppoents arguement, then destroying the misrepresentation, and in turn your opponent

Straw man

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A straw man or straw person, also known in the UK as an Aunt Sally,[1][2] is a type of argument and is an informal fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position.[3] To "attack a straw man" is to create the illusion of having refuted a proposition by replacing it with a superficially similar yet unequivalent proposition (the "straw man"), and to refute it, without ever having actually refuted the original position.[3][4] This technique has been used throughout history in polemical debate, particularly in arguments about highly charged, emotional issues.



[edit] Origin

As a fallacy, the identification and name of straw man arguments are of relatively recent date, although Aristotle makes remarks that suggest a similar concern; Douglas Walton identified "the first inclusion of it we can find in a textbook as an informal fallacy" in Stuart Chase's Guides to Straight Thinking from 1956 (p. 40).[5][6] Oddly enough Hamblin's classic text Fallacies (1970), neither mentions it as a distinct type, nor even as a historical term.[5][6]
The origins of the term are unclear. The usage of the term in rhetoric suggests a human figure made of straw which is easily knocked down or destroyed, such as a military training dummy, scarecrow, or effigy.[7] The rhetorical technique is sometimes called an Aunt Sally in the UK, with reference to a traditional fairground game in which objects are thrown at a fixed target. One common folk etymology is that it refers to men who stood outside courthouses with a straw in their shoe in order to indicate their willingness to be a false witness.[8]

[edit] Structure

The straw man fallacy occurs in the following pattern of argument:
  1. Person 1 has position X.
  2. Person 2 disregards certain key points of X and instead presents the superficially similar position Y. The position Y is a distorted version of X and can be set up in several ways, including:
    1. Presenting a misrepresentation of the opponent's position.
    2. Quoting an opponent's words out of context—i.e., choosing quotations that misrepresent the opponent's actual intentions (see fallacy of quoting out of context).[4]
    3. Presenting someone who defends a position poorly as the defender, then refuting that person's arguments—thus giving the appearance that every upholder of that position (and thus the position itself) has been defeated.[3]
    4. Inventing a fictitious persona with actions or beliefs which are then criticized, implying that the person represents a group of whom the speaker is critical.
    5. Oversimplifying an opponent's argument, then attacking this oversimplified version.
  3. Person 2 attacks position Y, concluding that X is false/incorrect/flawed.
This reasoning is fallacious because attacking a distorted version of a position does not address the actual position. The ostensible argument that Person 2 makes has the form:
"Don't support X, because X has an unacceptable (or absurd or contradictory or terrible) consequence."
However, the actual form of the argument is:
"Don't support X, because Y has an unacceptable (or absurd or contradictory or terrible) consequence."
This argument doesn't make sense; it is a non sequitur. Person 2 relies on the audience not noticing this.

[edit] Examples

A: Sunny days are good.
B: If all days were sunny, we'd never have rain, and without rain, we'd have famine and death.
In this case, B falsely frames A's claim to imply that A believes only sunny days are good, and B argues against that assertion. A actually asserts that sunny days are good and, in fact, says nothing about rainy days.
C: We should give children ice cream after every school day.
D: That would be rather bad for their health.
C: Do you want our children to starve?
Person C says that children should be given ice cream after every school day. D replies to that statement assuming that children would be getting this in addition to their regular meals, and states that this would be unhealthy. Person C replies with the unreasonable suggestion that if children were not given ice cream, they would starve. Person C does this because it is harder for Person D to argue that children should starve than to argue that children should not be unhealthy.
Christopher Tindale presents, as an example, the following passage from a draft of a bill (HCR 74) considered by the Louisiana State Legislature in 2001:[5]
Whereas, the writings of Charles Darwin, the father of evolution, promoted the justification of racism, and his books On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man postulate a hierarchy of superior and inferior races. . . .
Therefore, be it resolved that the legislature of Louisiana does hereby deplore all instances and all ideologies of racism, does hereby reject the core concepts of Darwinist ideology that certain races and classes of humans are inherently superior to others, and does hereby condemn the extent to which these philosophies have been used to justify and approve racist practices.
Tindale comments that "the portrait painted of Darwinian ideology is a caricature, one not borne out by any objective survey of the works cited. That similar misrepresentations of Darwinian thinking have been used to justify and approve racist practices is beside the point: the position that the legislation is attacking and dismissing is a Straw Man. In subsequent debate this error was recognized, and the eventual bill omitted all mention of Darwin and Darwinist ideology."[5]

Dear Mr. Adams, There are Things We Don't Talk About in the Natural Products Industry

Sunday, February 24, 2013

Read Oscar Pistorius's full account of what happened the night Reeva Steenkamp was shot dead | News.com.au

Pachauri quietly blows goalposts away, pretends to like skeptics. It’s all PR to keep the gravy train running.

Pachauri quietly blows goalposts away, pretends to like skeptics. It’s all PR to keep the gravy train running.

There’s a PR war going on

Pachauri is chief PR officer for the Global-not-so-Warming-Gravy-Train. His job is to say things with a straight face that are the complete opposite of what he’s said before, and to pretend he has never said anything differently.
The IPCC are a government committee who’ve stamped the brand name “science” to their policy wish list. They got away with it by using ancient tribal rhetorical techniques. Call your opponent names, spit on their reputation, spread nasty rumors, and tell the useful idiots who follow you that they are smart, caring, and superior — even as you teach them to chant “denier” in response to the dog-whistle. The good thing about having Idiot followers is that can believe at the same time that “denier” is a scientific term and that they have a high IQ.
It is also handy if you give out plum government jobs and consultancies, to keep your supporters ardent. The power of patronage, what ho!
But the game is changing, skeptics have scored too many points.
Thus and verily skeptics have been hitting home runs by shining a light on the religious attitude of the IPCC which keeps declaring unscientifically that the science is settled.
Pachauri is hoping he can rewrite history and neutralize some of the damage. The Endless Junket must go on.
At this point in the PR-game Pachauri cannot admit the skeptics were right and the IPCC was wrong. His best option in the game is to pretend that the IPCC have always been saying the same points the skeptics are scoring runs with — thus making skeptics seem irrelevant and the points moot. The only drawback is the zombie truth comes back to bite.

Can’t we just pretend the IPCC predicted decades of global flatness?

In 1990 the IPCC told global policymakers that even if they stabilized emissions, the world would warm by at least 0.2C per decade for the next few decades. That was their “low estimate”. Emissions didn’t remotely stabilize, so the warming trend “should” have been even more than that (they thought 0.3C per decade, maybe up to 0.5C per decade). Instead it warmed less.
The pause became noticeable. The goalposts started shifting as the pause got longer. Nothing disproves a climate model (that’s a tautology, by the way).
In 2008 NOAA said that pauses of 15 years or more didn’t fit with climate simulations (so if it went longer, the models would be wrong). Likewise James Hansen was caught in ClimateGate saying that ‘no upward trend’ has to continue for a total of 15 years before we get worried.’ When the pause got a bit longer still, Ben Santer said in a paper it really was 17 years we needed to see. That was 2011.
By 2013, instead of admitting failure, changing the theory and thanking the skeptics, Pachauri now says we’ll need 30 -40 years of the IPCC being wrong before we can say they are wrong. Bold, very bold.
THE UN’s climate change chief, Rajendra Pachauri, has acknowledged a 17-year pause in global temperature rises, confirmed recently by Britain’s Met Office, but said it would need to last “30 to 40 years at least” to break the long-term global warming trend.
They won’t make the mistake of making actual predictions again after they failed so badly in 1990. Now they predict warming, cooling, blizzards, droughts and unwarming. All roads lead to a crisis.

Can’t we just pretend the IPCC likes debate and skeptics are useful?

After years of making out that skeptics are “flat-earth-deniers who use voo-doo science“, Pachauri now reverses onto another track (did you know Pachauri is a railway engineer?) and says skeptics are useful and climate science is all up for discussion (apparently):
“..Dr Pachauri, the chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, said that open discussion about controversial science and politically incorrect views was an essential part of tackling climate change. .. no issues should be off-limits for public discussion.”
Dr Pachauri said that people had the right to question the science, whatever their motivations.
By 2010 Pachauri wished skeptics would “rub asbestos on their faces”. Not someone he wanted to invite to dinner then?
So what happened?
Skeptics really are winning. The IPCC realize they look like fools every time a skeptic points out that science is about asking questions and having a debate:
“People have to question these things and science only thrives on the basis of questioning,” Dr Pachauri said.
He said there was “no doubt about it” that it was good for controversial issues to be “thrashed out in the public arena”.
But in 2008 all of man-made climate science was known. Doubters were as stupid as flat Earthers according to Pachauri:
” There is, even today, a Flat Earth Society that meets every year to say the Earth is flat. The science about climate change is very clear. There really is no room for doubt at this point.”
Is this what he means when he talks of “thrashing” out the issue?

Pachauri’s tactic of rewriting history, without admitting any wrongs or acknowledging any errors, will work if lazy or ideologically-motivated journalists don’t point to his earlier statements and put him on the spot. But it fails if skeptics keep reminding the world of the inconvenient truth.
You know what to do :-) .

And Here We Have a Bunch of Food ...

It's Easie to Fool People ...

100-km Chinese Traffic Jam Enters Day Nine

If Someone Treats You Like Crap ...

You Live Like This ...

Ratzinger to live at the Vatican to ensure immunity from prosecution over child abuse cover up (the reason, among many other things, why he became the first Pope in 600 years to resign)

The net closes: Former Tory Cabinet minister faces child sex arrest over claims girl was raped and boys were abused

You Mean To Tell Me ...

I Have a Dream Too ...

As usual ....shoot the messenger if they don't agree with you

ABC, Dr Helen Caldicott sinks to mocking the unwell, Monckton calls for her to be deregistered
Helen Caldicott and the ABC have excelled themselves in the Art of Ad Hominem. So much so, that Christopher Monckton is not only writing to the ABC, but also to medical registration boards as well, calling for Caldicotts’s de-registration.
On ABC Radio National (about 25% into the program). Reader Steve, writes that “Helen Caldicott declares that climate change sceptic Christopher Monckton has “got thyrotoxicosis and bilateral exophthalmos”. She gives the impression that such conditions should prevent Monckton from engaging in the public debate. Waleed Aly said nothing to stop Dr Caldicott’s ad hominem attack on Monckton’s alleged medical condition.”
Is she not aware Monckton had Graves?
Caldicott is a doctor and also the co-founder of Physicians for Social Responsibility, “an organization of 23,000 doctors”. [See her Bio]. Perhaps she thinks it would be “socially responsible” to start a show where panels of doctors speculated on the medical conditions of celebrities they had never met? They could make fun of fat politicians and disabled sports stars? What fun. How about the laughs of picking on Stephen Hawking?
Stephan Lewandowsky could be a regular guest, pronouncing that non-Labor-Green fans were paranoid conspiracy hunters, and ideated nut-cases. Some ABC viewers would find that most entertaining. The rest will despair at how our tax dollars are being vaporized in the biased billion dollar organization with manners and reasoning at sub-preschooler levels, impoverishing public policy by suppressing non-pc facts.
- Jo

Christopher Monckton writes to the ABC

Christopher Monckton
I should be grateful if the ABC would investigate and respond to each of the following grounds of complaint against it for broadcasting factually inaccurate, biased, inappropriate, offensive and unfair remarks about me on its RadioNational programme “The Drawing Room ” on Wednesday, 20 February 2013 at 7.40 pm.
During the programme a Dr. Helen Caldicott said: “The other thing is, you know, that they say they have to give equal time to global warming, and they have people like this awful – what’s his name? – Monck? Lord Monckton, who’s got thyrotoxicosis and bilateral exophthalmos, but apart from that he’s not a lord and apart from that he doesn’t know any science. This is so important. And it’s imperative to have people who understand science and medicine to be discussing this, and not have these global deniers often who are funded by the oil companies like Exxon in America who spent hundreds of millions in a propaganda campaign to convince people that global warming isn’t a fact. I don’t think the media quite gets it that it’s like medicine: you know, you don’t have a charlatan debating with the doctor about the treatment of a patient, you have to, you know, practise the very best medicine you can or the patient might die.”
Ground 1: Dr. Caldicott incorrectly stated that I suffer from thryotoxicosis, which is in fact now cured, and correctly but grossly inappropriately stated that I suffer from one of the sequelae of that disease, bilateral exophthalmos. I am entitled to privacy in my medical history, and it is certainly inappropriate that Dr. Caldicott should discuss my health on the air, particularly in a fashion that was, in part, factually inaccurate.
Ground 2: Dr. Caldicott inaccurately stated that I am not a Lord. However, my passport states that I am “The Right Honourable Christopher Walter, Viscount Monckton of Brenchley”. A Viscount is a Lord. When the Clerk of the Parliaments once wrote to say I should not call myself “a member of the House of Lords”, I consulted a barrister expert in peerage law, whose written Opinion concludes that I am indeed a member of the House, albeit without the right to sit and vote, and that I am, in his words, “fully entitled to say so”.
Ground 3: Dr. Caldicott inaccurately stated that I do not know any science. However, I have a degree in Classical Architecture from the University of Cambridge, and the degree course included instruction in mathematics. I was last year’s Nerenberg Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. I have contributed several papers to the learned journals on climate science and economics, have lectured on climate science at universities on three continents at faculty as well as undergraduate level, and am an expert reviewer for the forthcoming Fifth Assessment Report of the UN’s climate panel, the IPCC. I have testified four times before the U.S. Congress on climate science and economics.
Ground 4: Dr. Caldicott describes me, offensively, as a “global denier”, with overtones calculated to bracket me with holocaust deniers.
Ground 5: Dr. Caldicott inaccurately implies that I am “funded by the oil companies like Exxon in America.” I am not, and have never been, funded by any oil company. My current tour in Australia, like my first tour here, is entirely funded by the contributions of those who attend my speaker meetings.
Ground 6: Dr. Caldicott unfairly and without adducing any evidence describes me as a “charlatan”, inferentially on the sole ground that she disagrees with me. I do not know whether she has any scientific or mathematical knowledge relevant to the climate debate: if not, then it was doubly inappropriate for her to mischaracterize me as a “charlatan”.
Ground 7: The presenter did nothing to prevent Dr. Caldicott from saying what she said, and did nothing to remedy the situation by indicating to the audience that her remarks – which on their face appear malicious – might not be well founded in fact and were certainly inappropriate.
I am also lodging complaints with the medical registration authorities in Australia, since Dr. Caldicott’s discussion of my health problems on the air is a flagrant breach of the confidentiality to which patients are entitled. I shall be requesting that Dr. Caldicott be removed from all medical registers in Australia and debarred from practising medicine ever again, on the ground that she is not a fit and proper person to respect the confidentiality of patients.

Christopher Monckton
The Viscount Monckton of Brenchley
h/t to Steve H. Thanks.

Horsemeat: Ireland Knew Three Months Ago But Safety Chiefs Kept Evidence of Contaminated Burgers Under Wraps
This is not the scandal- GMOs are the scandal!!!!

Uses a Rock as a Camera

What happens when a Lord and a Cabinet Office Minister are asked about chemtrails. Er, nothing ...

Metropolitan Police Covered Up VIP Paedophile Ring

US Opens Drone Base in Niger to Boost Africa Presence
Niger is a mostly desert country on the eastern border of Mali, where France has launched a war on January 11 under the pretext of halting the advance of fighters who control the north of the country. The








Some political analysts believe that Mali’s abundant natural resources, including gold and uranium reserves, could be one of the reasons behind the French war.


A 'Humanitarian War' Is an Oxymoron
Lol!! 55 al qaeda in Afghanistan

Please Tell Me Again ...

Britain's Credit Rating Downgraded from AAA to Aa1
Lol!! Rating agencies... Credible, anyone??!

Temporary Tattoos Could Make Electronic Telepathy and Telekinesis Possible
Lol!! Increments to embedded micro chips

Saturday, February 23, 2013

MSG and Aspartame are the Two Leading Causes of Central Nervous System Damage in the United States

Psychopath vs Sociopath

Re-Think Vaccines

One of the best!!

Our Wretched Species

Thatcher Minister Edwina Currie: There Is A Paedophile Cover-Up
Please read

Thatcher Minister Edwina Currie: There Is A Paedophile Cover-Up

Vatican sex scandal shows the West has lost its way

Vatican sex scandal shows the West has lost its way

Prisoner-X’s Death – The Cover Story Unravels

The Normal Person’s New World Order

Princess Cristina of Spain May Be Named in Corruption Case

The 'Justice' (inversion) System

Friday, February 22, 2013

‘Jewish’ senior officers in Hitler’s army: The truth is not black and white - it's a shade of grey

Please read!!!!!!!!!! Its true!!!

You May Choose to Look the Other Way ...

UK: Bahrain Our Ally; Despite Crackdown
Its so obvious....a conditional Arab spring

Israeli Forces Attack Palestinian Demonstrators


I Don't Need Any of This Shit

The Seven Elements of Your Psyche That Serve as the Gateway Into the Matrix
The bigger problem is, we actively hide the facts from ourselves through amazing feats of mental gymnastics. This is why it is nearly impossible to convince anyone what it really going on in the world - or within the walls of their home - or inside their own mind. The illusion is pervasive and overwhelming.

Obama Maneuvers to Keep Kill List Memos Permanently Secret
“We have this drone war, and the American public has no idea what the rules are, and Congress doesn’t know much more,” said Virginia E. Sloan, president of the Constitution Project told the Times.

We have been programmed ...

What is Freedom?

Take the Blue Pill

Very good! Must read

Pernicious Evil & the Black Swan
Most only really change when the discomfort of remaining the same becomes too great, and it's been said that in our western culture, if a person hasn't changed old, self-limiting beliefs & programming by the time they are 45, they probably never will. That would be like having to live with Bill O'Reilly in your head for the rest of your life!

Slavery as the new normal

Will Americans Soon Not Be Able To Buy, Sell Or Get A Job Without A Global ID Card?
This is all part of the agenda, as is gun control, culminating in human implanted micro chips

Powerful Lies - The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster And The Radioactive Effects On Human Health
Chernobyl was mainly a one-time event but Fukushima is ongoing, steadily releasing substantial quantities of radiation into the air and water

The Bible Says ...

It Isn't Insane ...

Jimmy Savile Made Mysterious Payments to Children at the Height of His Sex Offending

The Real Reason ... For Gun Control

Get off The Fence


How Coca-Cola's Pro-Aspartame PR Misleads the Public

Thursday, February 21, 2013

What’s Up With Room 322 at Hotel ZaZa?

Ten things about guns in South Africa

Brandishing Truth in the Face of Lies

Brennan Refuses to Rule Out Drone Assassinations Within the US
Mark my words, we'll look back at this Brennan as one of the most evil of all time

When an Inner Situation ...

Pentagon to Place 800,000 Civilian Workers on Unpaid Leave: Leon Panetta
If they could find the missing $2.3 trillion announced by Rumsfeld on 10/9/2001, they wouldn't have to do this kind of thing


Young Children Detained and Tortured after Protests in Egypt

Highway of Death: 22 Years Later (What We’re Up Against)
...remembering even Hitler spared the trapped at Dunkirk

The More You Know

Pesticides May Directly Cause Parkinson's Disease

Bradley Manning

Freedom of Speech by Arthur Topham


Five Vaccines To Never Give A Child

History They Don't Tell You About in School

Treasury’s Audit of the Federal Reserve’s Gold Is Pure Propaganda

Claims that 'Former Police Inspector Acted for Jimmy Savile'

Britain’s UKIP – Another Rothschild Zionist Lobby Tool?

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

The Kitchen Sink is Here

Lil Wayne’s “Love Me”: A Video Glamorizing Kitten Programming

George Carlin

Civil Disobedience: The Only 'Weapon' We Have Remaining?
Please.... 99% of the world are willing participants in their own mental enslavement. All 'they' need to swing you is your resentment of others that are different, your arrogance and your ignorance. Then you'll see people arguing over who read the newspaper the best; and ridiculing any new ideas


European Bank CEO Admits: 'The Whole Thing Is Doomed'

Its not happening, if not in your newspaper

Why is Bee Decline Not a National Emergency?
You'd have thought the unprecedented decline of the creatures responsible for pollinating a third of the world's food - not to mention over 80% of all the flowering plants on this planet -might prompt concern; that it might justify a mention on the six o'clock news, or an appearance on the front page of the national newspapers.

Investigator: Pistorius knew Steenkamp was in the toilet

Pistorius bail hearing: What we know so far

Friday, February 15, 2013

American fascism is built on the 9/11 Reichstag Fire, and will not end until that false flag atrocity is publicly and definitively exposed

A Culture of Violence

Vultures Feast on Purple Heart

He Did It For His Country

Historic Court Case Against the BBC’s Cover Up of 9/11 Evidence

There is No Justification ...

It’s the Interest, Stupid! Why Bankers Rule the World

The Duty of Youth

Tip toe to the chip

How many footballers have heart attacks while playing the game? Just more conditioning ... footballers may trial wearing microchips to monitor health

EDF Profits Surge to £1.7 BILLION… Just Months After Slapping British Customers With 10.8% Bill Hike

The Cost of Sanity

Thursday, February 14, 2013

Burnt Dorner remains confirmed

War Will be Endless

Elm guest house: Home Office was warned by top Tory 30 years ago of VIP paedophile ring

Hundreds of Palestinians Rally Against Israeli Road Project


Canadian Police Abused and Raped Native Women, Human Rights Watch Says

Pillaging of Gaza Antiquities An Archaeological Tragedy

What Does a Police State Look Like?

Internet 'Kill Switch' in Use?

This is a good place to start if you are concerned about vaccinations and there is so much to be concerned about

I doubt Willy Hague has a single thought without asking for permission - more agenda justification from the Secretary of State for Bombing and Bullshit

The GMO Lie Threatens Life on Earth Yet Some Resist

Australia knew of 'Prisoner X'

Symbolic Pics of the Month (02/13)

Intel Dump, Wednesday February 13, 2012
Worth a read

Wednesday, February 13, 2013

Britain Nurtures Israeli Regime’s Illegal Settlements Irrespective of International Law


Foreign-Backed Syrian Opposition Pledges Allegiance to Israel


JoanneNova: Peer Review failure: Science and Nature journals reject papers because they “have to be wrong”

Peer Review failure: Science and Nature journals reject papers because they “have to be wrong”

The peer review system has decayed to the point where the culture of the two “top” science journals virtually guarantees they will reject the most important research done today. It is the exact opposite of what we need to further human knowledge the fastest. Science and Nature are prestigious journals, yet they are now so conservative about ideas that challenge dominant assumptions, that they reject ground-breaking papers because those papers challenge the dominant meme, not because the evidence or the reasoning is suspect or weak.
Watts Up drew my attention to an extraordinary paper showing that billions of dollars of medical research may have been wasted because researchers assumed mice were the same as men. Dr Ronald W. Davis from Stanford comments: ““They are so ingrained in trying to cure mice that they forget we are trying to cure humans.” He found that 150 drugs were tested that in hindsight, were guaranteed to fail in humans. People didn’t understand that mice have a very different response to sepsis (which is any overwhelming blood-borne bacterial infection). Sepsis kills around 200,000 people in the US each year and costs an estimated $17 billion a year. Mice are already resistant to huge numbers of bacteria in their blood whereas humans overreact, our capillaries leak, our organs run short of blood, mass organ failure ensues, and we can die. While mice may have an answer to deadly sepsis (how do they resist it?) we weren’t looking for that in our experiments, we were testing drugs on mice that were never going to help us. Now we understand why.

The peer review system is failing us — Science and Nature missed a whopper of a study

The editors must be kicking themselves now. But what a classic case study of the way the peer-review-establishment responds to a contentious idea. Here was information that could potentially save lives that was dismissed and delayed for the most unscientific of reasons.
The study’s investigators tried for more than a year to publish their paper, which showed that there was no relationship between the genetic responses of mice and those of humans. They submitted it to the publications Science and Nature, hoping to reach a wide audience. It was rejected from both.
The data was described as persuasive, robust, and stunning. Yet both prestigious journals tossed the drafts out. The best excuse they can give is that they reject lots of papers. Oh, well that’s ok then…
Science and Nature said it was their policy not to comment on the fate of a rejected paper, or whether it had even been submitted to them. But, Ginger Pinholster of Science said, the journal accepts only about 7 percent of the nearly 13,000 papers submitted each year, so it is not uncommon for a paper to make the rounds.
Still, Dr. Davis said, reviewers did not point out scientific errors. Instead, he said, “the most common response was, ‘It has to be wrong. I don’t know why it is wrong, but it has to be wrong.’ ” [See page 2 of the story]

If you do revolutionary work, send it somewhere else

My advice to scientists with groundbreaking results is not to even submit papers to Nature or Science any more. If the information you have is important and will ruffle feathers (and what groundbreaking research doesn’t?) why delay it? There are plenty of alternatives:
The investigators turned to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. As a member of the academy, Dr. Davis could suggest reviewers for his paper, and he proposed researchers who he thought would give the work a fair hearing. “If they don’t like it, I want to know why,” he said. They recommended publication, and the editorial board of the journal, which independently assesses papers, agreed.
The clues were there all along — mice often live in filthy conditions and eat food that would make us sick:
Yet there was always one major clue that mice might not really mimic humans in this regard: it is very hard to kill a mouse with a bacterial infection. Mice need a million times more bacteria in their blood than what would kill a person.
“Mice can eat garbage and food that is lying around and is rotten,” Dr. Davis said. “Humans can’t do that. We are too sensitive.”
If researchers had questioned their assumptions twenty years ago, how many lives might have been saved? Perhaps it would only have made a few years difference — because genetic techniques were used (and they were so basic 20 years ago) and the study took ten years in any case. But for twenty years money and brain-power were used to study drugs that were never going to work. Imagine what else we could have learnt?
It’s a reminder that the wrong assumptions can kill despite years of hard work, good intentions and honest research. What is science if is not constantly testing the base assumptions? It’s a faith-based-project.
Anyone who claims peer-reviewed research is rigorous has some kind of delusional faith that humans aren’t human.

Smart Meters, You and GUS....

Resigning Ratzinger Covered Up Global Child Abuse - Mea Maxima Culpa: Silence in the House of God

If You Are Neutral ...

Things That Make You Go hmmm ...

If You Believe In Vaccines, You Don’t Believe In The Perfection of The Human Body

New Report: Brennan’s ‘Black Ops’ In Libya Caused “Benghazigate”, Stevens Death

Obama Defends Drone Assassinations in State of the Union Address

Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Pope prophesies (we're one away from Peter the Roman)

Pope No.Motto (Translation)Regnal Name (Reign)NameHistorical Reference or ExplanationCoat of Arms
Ex caſtro Tiberis.Cœleſtinus. ij.Typhernas.
1671. From a castle of the TiberCelestine II (1143–1144)Guido de CastelloAn inhabitant of Tifernum.
Born in Città di Castello, Umbria, on the banks of the Tiber.[5]
Inimicus expulſus.Lucius. ij.De familia Caccianemica.
1682. Enemy expelledLucius II (1144–1145)Gherardo Caccianemici del OrsoOf the Caccianemici family.
This motto refers to Gherardo Caccianemici’s surname. “Cacciare” means “to hunt”,[6] and “nemici” is the Italian word for “enemies”. As his name foreshadowed, Caccianemici would be driven from Rome by his own subjects.[7]
Ex magnitudine mõtis.Eugenius. iij.Patria Ethruſcus oppido Montis magni.
1693. Out of the greatness of the mountainEugene III (1145–1153)Bernardo dei Pagnelli di MontemagnoTuscan by nation, from the town of Montemagno.
The motto refers to Pope Eugene’s last name, “Montemagno.”[8]
Abbas Suburranus.Anaſtaſius. iiij.De familia Suburra.
1704. Suburran abbotAnastasius IV (1153–1154)Corrado di SuburraFrom the Suburra family.
De rure albo.Adrianus. iiij.Vilis natus in oppido Sancti Albani.
1715. From the white countrysideAdrian IV (1154–1159)Nicholas BreakspearHumbly born in the town of St. Albans.
Educated at the St Albans School in Hertfordshire. Nicholas Breakspear was the bishop of Albano before becoming pope.[9]
Ex tetro carcere.Victor. iiij.Fuit Cardinalis S. Nicolai in carcere Tulliano.
6. Out of a loathsome prison.Victor IV, Antipope (1159–1164)Ottaviano MonticelloHe was a cardinal of St. Nicholas in the Tullian prison.
Via Tranſtiberina.Calliſtus. iij. [sic]Guido Cremenſis Cardinalis S. Mariæ Tranſtiberim.
7. Road across the Tiber.Paschal III, Antipope (1164–1168)Guido di CremaGuido of Crema, Cardinal of St. Mary across the Tiber.
As a cardinal, he had held the title of Santa Maria in Trastevere.[10]
De Pannonia Thuſciæ.Paſchalis. iij. [sic]Antipapa. Hungarus natione, Epiſcopus Card. Tuſculanus.
8. From Tusculan HungaryCallixtus III, Antipope (1168–1178)Giovanni di StrumiAntipope. A Hungarian by birth, Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum.
He was John, Abbot of Struma, originally from Hungary.[11]
Ex anſere cuſtode.Alexander. iij.De familia Paparona.
1729. Out of the guardian gooseAlexander III (1159–1181)Orlando Bandinelli PaparoniOf the Paparoni family.
His family's coat of arms had a goose on it.[12]
Lux in oſtio.Lucius. iij.Lucenſis Card. Oſtienſis.
17310. A light in the entranceLucius III (1181–1185)Ubaldo AllucingoliA Luccan Cardinal of Ostia.
In 1159, he became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia.[13] Lux may also be a wordplay on Lucius.
Sus in cribro.Vrbanus. iij.Mediolanenſis, familia cribella, quæ Suem pro armis gerit.
17411. Pig in a sieveUrban III (1185–1187)Umberto CrivelliA Milanese, of the Cribella (Crivelli) family, which bears a pig for arms.
His family name Crivelli means "a sieve" in Italian.
Enſis Laurentii.Gregorius. viij.Card. S. Laurentii in Lucina, cuius inſignia enſes falcati.
17512. The sword of St. LawrenceGregory VIII (1187)Alberto De MorraCardinal of St. Lawrence in Lucina, of whom the arms were curved swords.
He had been the Cardinal of St. Lawrence[14] and his armorial bearing was a drawn sword.[15]
De Schola exiet.[16]Clemens. iij.Romanus, domo Scholari.
17613 He will come from schoolClement III (1187–1191)Paolo ScolariA Roman, of the house of Scolari.
His family name was Scolari.
De rure bouenſi.Cœleſtinus. iij.Familia Bouenſi.
17714. From cattle countryCelestine III (1191–1198)Giacinto BoboneBovensis (Bobone) family.
He was from the Bobone family; a wordplay on cattle (boves).
Comes Signatus.Innocentius. iij.Familia Comitum Signiæ.
17815. Designated countInnocent III (1198–1216)Lotario dei Conti di SegniFamily of the Counts of Signia (Segni)
Descendant of the Segni family.
C o a Innocenzo III.svg
Canonicus de latere.Honorius. iij.Familia Sabella, Canonicus S. Ioannis Lateranensis.
17916. Canon from the sideHonorius III (1216–1227)Cencio SavelliSavelli family, canon of St. John Lateran
He was a canon for the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, and had served as papal chamberlain in 1188.[17]
C o a Onorio IV.svg
Auis Oſtienſis.Gregorius. ix.Familia Comitum Signiæ Epiſcopus Card. Oſtienſis.
18017. Bird of OstiaGregory IX (1227–1241)Ugolino dei Conti di SegniFamily of the Counts of Segni, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia.
Before his election to the papacy, Ugolino dei Conti was the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, and the family coat of arms bear a bird on a gules background.[18]
C o a Innocenzo III.svg
Leo Sabinus.Cœleſtinus iiij.Mediolanenſis, cuius inſignia Leo, Epiſcopus Card. Sabinus.
18118. Sabine LionCelestine IV (1241)Goffredo CastiglioniA Milanese, whose arms were a lion, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina.
He was Cardinal Bishop of Sabina[19] and his armorial bearing had a lion in it. Also a play on words, referring to the pope's last name, Castiglioni.
C o a Celestino IV.svg
Comes Laurentius.Innocentius iiij.domo flisca, Comes Lauaniæ, Cardinalis S. Laurentii in Lucina.
18219. Count LawrenceInnocent IV (1243–1254)Sinibaldo FieschiOf the house of Flisca (Fieschi), Count of Lavagna, Cardinal of St. Lawrence in Lucina.
He was the Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucca,[20] and his father was the Count of Lavagna.[21]
C o a Adriano V.svg
Signum Oſtienſe.Alexander iiij.De comitibus Signiæ, Epiſcopus Card. Oſtienſis.
18320. Sign of OstiaAlexander IV (1254–1261)Renaldo dei Signori di IenneOf the counts of Segni, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia.
He was Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and member of the Conti-Segni family.[22]
C o a Innocenzo III.svg
Hieruſalem Campanię.Vrbanus iiii.Gallus, Trecenſis in Campania, Patriarcha Hieruſalem.
18421. Jerusalem of ChampagneUrban IV (1261–1264)Jacques PantaleonA Frenchman, of Trecae (Troyes) in Champagne, Patriarch of Jerusalem.
Native of Troyes, Champagne, later patriarch of Jerusalem.[23]
C o a Urbano IV.svg
Draco depreſſus.Clemens iiii.cuius inſignia Aquila vnguibus Draconem tenens.
18522. Dragon pressed downClement IV (1265–1268)Guido FulcodiWhose badge is an eagle holding a dragon in his talons.
His coat of arms had an eagle crushing a dragon.
C o a Clemente IV.svg
Anguinus uir.Gregorius. x.Mediolanenſis, Familia vicecomitum, quæ anguẽ pro inſigni gerit.
18623. Snaky manGregory X (1271–1276)Tebaldo ViscontiA Milanese, of the family of Viscounts (Visconti), which bears a snake for arms.
The Visconti coat of arms had a large serpent devouring a male child feet first.[24]
C o a Gregorio X.svg
Concionator Gallus.Innocentius. v.Gallus, ordinis Prædicatorum.
18724. French PreacherInnocent V (1276)Pierre de TarentaiseA Frenchman, of the Order of Preachers. He was born in south-eastern France and was a member of the order of Preachers.[25]C o a Innocenzo V.svg
Bonus Comes.Adrianus. v.Ottobonus familia Fliſca ex comitibus Lauaniæ.
18825. Good Count/companionAdrian V (1276)Ottobono FieschiOttobono, of the Fieschi family, from the counts of Lavagna.
He was a count and a wordplay on "good" can be made with his name, Ottobono.
C o a Adriano V.svg
Piſcator Thuſcus.Ioannes. xxi.antea Ioannes Petrus Epiſcopus Card. Tuſculanus.
18926. Tuscan FishermanJohn XXI (1276–1277)Pedro JuliãoFormerly John Peter, Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum.
John XXI had been the Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum.[26]
C o a Giovanni XXI.svg
Roſa compoſita.Nicolaus. iii.Familia Vrſina, quæ roſam in inſigni gerit, dictus compoſitus.
19027. Composite RoseNicholas III (1277–1280)Giovanni Gaetano OrsiniOf the Ursina (Orsini) family, which bears a rose on its arms, called 'composite'.
He bore a rose in his coat of arms.[27]
C o a Niccolo III.svg
Ex teloneo liliacei Martini.Martinus. iiii.cuius inſignia lilia, canonicus, & theſaurarius S. Martini Turonen[sis].
19128. From the tollhouse of lilied MartinMartin IV (1281–1285)Simone de BrionWhose arms were lilies, canon and treasurer of St. Martin of Tours.
He was Canon and Treasurer at the Church of St. Martin in Tours, France.
C o a Martino IV.svg
Ex roſa leonina.Honorius. iiii.Familia Sabella inſignia roſa à leonibus geſtata.
19229. Out of the leonine roseHonorius IV (1285–1287)Giacomo SavelliOf the Sabella (Savelli) family, arms were a rose carried by lions.
His coat of arms were emblazoned with two lions supporting a rose.[27]
C o a Onorio IV.svg
Picus inter eſcas.Nicolaus. iiii.Picenus patria Eſculanus.[28]
19330. Woodpecker between foodNicholas IV (1288–1292)Girolamo MasciA Picene by nation, of Asculum (Ascoli).
He was from Ascoli, now called Ascoli Piceno, in Picene country.
C o a Niccolo IV.svg
Ex eremo celſus.Cœleſtinus. v.Vocatus Petrus de morrone Eremita.
19431. Raised out of the desertSt. Celestine V (1294)Pietro Di MurroneCalled Peter de Morrone, a hermit.
Prior to his election he was a hermit (eremita, literally a dweller in the eremus, or desert). Also a play on words (celsus/Coelestinus), referring to the pope's chosen name Celestine.
C o a Celestino V.svg
Ex undarũ bn̑dictione.Bonifacius. viii.Vocatus prius Benedictus, Caetanus, cuius inſignia undæ.
19532. From the blessing of the wavesBoniface VIII (1294–1303)Benedetto CaetaniPreviously called Benedict, of Gaeta, whose arms were waves.
His coat of arms had a wave through it. Also a play on words, referring to the pope's Christian name, "Benedetto."[27]
C o a Bonifacio VIII.svg
Concionator patereus. [sic]Benedictus. xi.qui uocabatur Frater Nicolaus, ordinis Prædicatorum.
19633. Preacher From PataraBenedict XI (1303–1304)Nicholas BoccasiniWho was called Brother Nicholas, of the order of Preachers.
This Pope belonged to the Order of Preachers. Patara was the hometown of Saint Nicholas, a namesake of this Pope (born Nicholas Boccasini).[29]
C o a Benedetto XI.svg
De feſſis aquitanicis.Clemens V.natione aquitanus, cuius inſignia feſſæ erant.
19734. From the misfortunes/fesses of AquitaineClement V (1305–1314)Bertrand de GotAn Aquitanian by birth, whose arms were fesses.
He was a native of St. Bertrand de Comminges in Aquitaine, and eventually became Archbishop of Bordeaux, also in Aquitaine. His coat of arms displays three horizontal bars, known in heraldry as fesses.
C o a Clemente V.svg
De ſutore oſſeo.Ioannes XXII.Gallus, familia Oſſa, Sutoris filius.
19835. From a bony cobblerJohn XXII (1316–1334)Jacques DueseA Frenchman, of the Ossa family, son of a cobbler.
His family name was Duèze, D'Euze, D'Euzes, or Euse, the last of which might be back-translated into Latin as Ossa "bones". The popular legend that his father was a cobbler is probably untrue.
C o a Giovanni XXII.svg
Coruus ſchiſmaticus.Nicolaus V.qui uocabatur F. Petrus de corbario, contra Ioannem XXII. Antipapa Minorita.
36. Schismatic crowNicholas V, Antipope (1328–1330)Pietro Rainalducci di CorvaroWho was called Brother Peter of Corbarium (Corvaro), the Minorite antipope opposing John XXII.
The motto is a play on words, referring to Pietro di Corvaro's last name.
Frigidus Abbas.Benedictus XII.Abbas Monaſterii fontis frigidi.
19937. Cold abbotBenedict XII (1334–1342)Jacques FournierAbbot of the monastery of the cold spring.
He was an abbot in the monastery of Fontfroide ("cold spring").[30]
C o a Benedetto XII.svg
De roſa Attrebatenſi.Clemens VI.Epiſcopus Attrebatenſis, cuius inſignia Roſæ.
20038. From the rose of ArrasClement VI (1342–1352)Pierre RogerBishop of Arras, whose arms were roses.
He was Bishop of Arras, (Latin: Episcopus Atrebatensis),[31] and his armorial bearings were emblazoned with six roses.[32]
C o a Gregorio XI.svg
De mõtibus Pãmachii.Innocentius VI.Cardinalis SS. Ioannis & Pauli. T. Panmachii, cuius inſignia ſex montes erant.
20139. From the mountains of PammachiusInnocent VI (1352–1362)Etienne AubertCardinal of Saints John and Paul, Titulus of Pammachius, whose arms were six mountains.
Pope Innocent was born at Mont in the diocese of Limoges, France, and he rose to prominence as the Bishop of Clermont.[33] He had been a cardinal priest with the title of St. Pammachius (i.e., the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo in Rome)[34]
C o a Innocenzo VI.svg
Gallus Vicecomes.Vrbanus V.nuncius Apoſtolicus ad Vicecomites Mediolanenſes.
20240. French viscountUrban V (1362–1370)Guglielmo De GrimoardApostolic nuncio to the Viscounts of Milan.
He was born of a noble French family.
C o a Urbano V.svg
Nouus de uirgine forti.Gregorius XI.qui uocabatur Petrus Belfortis, Cardinalis S. Mariæ nouæ.
20341. New man from the strong virginGregory XI (1370–1378)Pierre Roger de BeaufortWho was called Peter Belfortis (Beaufort), Cardinal of New St. Mary's.
From the Beaufort family and Cardinal of Santa Maria Nuova[35]
C o a Gregorio XI.svg
Decruce Apoſtolica. [sic]Clemens VII.qui fuit Preſbyter Cardinalis SS. XII. Apoſtolorũ cuius inſignia Crux.
42. From the apostolic crossClement VII, Antipope (1378–1394)Robert, Count of GenevaWho was Cardinal Priest of the Twelve Holy Apostles, whose arms were a cross.
His coat of arms showed a cross, quarterly pierced.[36]
C o a Clemente VII (Avignone).svg
Luna Coſmedina.Benedictus XIII.antea Petrus de Luna, Diaconus Cardinalis S. Mariæ in Coſmedin.
43. Cosmedine moon.Benedict XIII, Antipope (1394–1423)Peter de LunaFormerly Peter de Luna, Cardinal Deacon of St. Mary in Cosmedin.
He was the famous Peter de Luna, Cardinal of Santa Maria in Cosmedin.[37]
C o a Benedetto XIII (Avignone).svg
Schiſma Barchinoniũ.Clemens VIII.Antipapa, qui fuit Canonicus Barchinonenſis.
44. Schism of the BarcelonasClement VIII, Antipope (1423–1429)Gil Sanchez MuñozAntipope, who was a canon of Barcelona.
De inferno prægnãti.Vrbanus VI.Neapolitanus Pregnanus, natus in loco quæ dicitur Infernus.
20445. From a pregnant hell.Urban VI (1378–1389)Bartolomeo PrignanoThe Neapolitan Prignano, born in a place which is called Inferno.
His family name was Prignano or Prignani, and he was native to a place called Inferno near Naples.[39]
C o a Urbano VI.svg
Cubus de mixtione.Bonifacius. IX.familia tomacella à Genua Liguriæ orta, cuius inſignia Cubi.
20546. Cube from a mixtureBoniface IX (1389–1404)Pietro TomacelliOf the Tomacelli family, born in Genoa in Liguria, whose arms were cubes.
His coat of arms includes a bend checky — a wide stripe with a checkerboard pattern.[32]
C o a Bonifacio IX.svg
De meliore ſydere.Innocentius. VII.uocatus Coſmatus de melioratis Sulmonenſis, cuius inſignia ſydus.
20647. From a better starInnocent VII (1404–1406)Cosmo MiglioratiCalled Cosmato dei Migliorati of Sulmo, whose arms were a star.
The prophecy is a play on words, "better" (melior) referring to the pope's last name, Migliorati (Meliorati). There is a shooting star on his coat of arms.[32]
C o a Innocenzo VII.svg
Nauta de Ponte nigro.Gregorius XII.Venetus, commendatarius eccleſiæ Nigropontis.
20748. Sailor from a black bridgeGregory XII (1406–1415)Angelo CorrerA Venetian, commendatary of the church of Negroponte.
Was Bishop of Venice and the Bishop of Chalcice, Chalcice being located on the Isle of Negropont
C o a Gregorio XII.svg
Flagellum ſolis.Alexander. V.Græcus Archiepiſcopus Mediolanenſis, inſignia Sol.
49. Whip of the sunAlexander V, Antipope (1409–1410)Petros PhilargesA Greek, Archbishop of Milan, whose arms were a sun.
His coat of arms had a large sun on it. Also, a play on words, referring to the pope's last name, "Philarges."[40]
C o a Alexandre V (Pisa).svg
Ceruus Sirenæ.Ioannes XXIII.Diaconus Cardinalis S. Euſtachii, qui cum ceruo depingitur, Bononiæ legatus, Neapolitanus.
50. Stag of the sirenJohn XXIII, Antipope (1410–1415)Baldassarre CossaCardinal Deacon of St. Eustace, who is depicted with a stag; legate of Bologna, a Neapolitan.
Baldassarre Cossa was a cardinal with the title of St. Eustachius.[41] St. Eustachius converted to Christianity after he saw a stag with a cross between its horns. Baldassarre's family was originally from Naples, which has the emblem of the siren.
Corona ueli aurei.Martinus V.familia colonna, Diaconus Cardinalis S. Georgii ad uelum aureum.
20851. Crown of the golden curtainMartin V (1417–1431)Oddone ColonnaOf the Colonna family, Cardinal Deacon of St. George at the golden curtain.
Oddone Colonna was the Cardinal Deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro.[42] The word "Velabrum" is here interpreted as derived from "velum aureum", or golden veil.[43] His coat of arms had a golden crown resting atop a column.[44]
C o a Martino V.svg
Lupa Cœleſtina,Eugenius. IIII.Venetus, canonicus antea regularis Cœleſtinus, & Epiſcopus Senẽſis.
20952. Heavenly she-wolfEugene IV (1431–1447)Gabriele CondulmaroA Venetian, formerly a regular Celestine canon, and Bishop of Siena.
He belonged to the order of the Celestines and was the Bishop of Siena which bears a she-wolf on its arms.
C o a Eugenio IV.svg
Amator Crucis.Felix. V.qui uocabatur Amadæus Dux Sabaudiæ, inſignia Crux.
53. Lover of the crossFelix V, Antipope (1439–1449)Amadeus Duke of SavoyWho was called Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, arms were a cross.
He was previously the count of Savoy and therefore his coat of arms contained the cross of Savoy.[45] Also, the prophecy is a play on words, referring to the antipope's Christian name, "Amadeus."
C o a Felice V (antipapa).svg
De modicitate Lunæ.Nicolaus V.Lunenſis de Sarzana, humilibus parentibus natus.
21054. From the meanness of LunaNicholas V (1447–1455)Tommaso ParentucelliA Lunese of Sarzana, born to humble parents.
He was born in Sarzana in the diocese of Luni, the ancient name of which was Luna.
C o a Niccolo V.svg
Bos paſcens.Calliſtus. III.Hiſpanus, cuius inſignia Bos paſcens.
21155. Pasturing oxCallixtus III (1455–1458)Alfonso BorjaA Spaniard, whose arms were a pasturing ox.
Alonso Borgia's coat of arms had a grazing ox.[44]
C o a Callisto III.svg
De Capra & Albergo.Pius. II.Senenſis, qui fuit à Secretis Cardinalibus Capranico & Albergato.
21256. From a nanny-goat and an innPius II (1458–1464)Enea Silvio de PiccolominiA Sienese, who was secretary to Cardinals Capranicus and Albergatus.
He had been secretary to Cardinal Domenico Capranica and Cardinal Albergatti before he was elected Pope.[46]
C o a Pio II.svg
De Ceruo & Leone.Paulus. II.Venetus, qui fuit Commendatarius eccleſiæ Ceruienſis, & Cardinalis tituli S. Marci.
21357. From a stag and lionPaul II (1464–1471)Pietro BarboA Venetian, who was Commendatary of the church of Cervia, and Cardinal of the title of St. Mark.
Possibly refers to his Bishopric of Cervia (punning on cervus, "a stag") and his Cardinal title of St. Mark (symbolized by a winged lion).[47]
C o a Paulo II.svg
Piſcator minorita.Sixtus. IIII.Piſcatoris filius, Franciſcanus.
21458. Minorite fishermanSixtus IV (1471–1484)Francesco Della RovereSon of a fisherman, Franciscan.
He was born the son of a fisherman and a member of the Franciscans, also known as "Minorites".
C o a Sisto IV.svg
Præcurſor Siciliæ.Innocentius VIII.qui uocabatur Ioãnes Baptiſta, & uixit in curia Alfonſi regis Siciliæ.
21559. Forerunner of SicilyInnocent VIII (1484–1492)Giovanni Battista CibòWho was called John Baptist, and lived in the court of Alfonso, king of Sicily.
Giovanni Battista Cibò was named after John the Baptist, the precursor of Christ. In his early years, Giovanni served as the Bishop of Molfetta in Sicily.[48]
C o a Innocenzo VIII.svg
Bos Albanus in portu.Alexander VI.Epiſcopus Cardinalis Albanus & Portuenſis, cuius inſignia Bos.
21660. Bull of Alba in the harborAlexander VI (1492–1503)Rodrigo de BorgiaCardinal Bishop of Albano and Porto, whose arms were a bull.
In 1456, he was made a Cardinal and he held the titles of Cardinal Bishop of Albano and Porto. [49] Also, Pope Alexander had a red bull on his coat of arms[50]
Papal Arms of Alexander VI.svg
De paruo homine.Pius. III.Senenſis, familia piccolominea.
21761. From a small manPius III (1503)Francesco Todeschini PiccolominiA Sienese, of the Piccolomini family.
His family name was Piccolomini, from piccolo "small" and uomo "man".
C o a Pio II.svg
Fructus Iouis iuuabit.Iulius. II.Ligur, eius inſignia Quercus, Iouis arbor.
21862. The fruit of Jupiter will helpJulius II (1503–1513)Giuliano Della RovereA Genoese, his arms were an oak, Jupiter's tree.
On his arms was an oak tree, which was sacred to Jupiter.[50] Pope Julius' family name, "Della Rovere," literally means "of the oak."[51]
C o a Sisto IV.svg
De craticula Politiana.Leo. X.filius Laurentii medicei, & ſcholaris Angeli Politiani.
21963. From a Politian gridironLeo X (1513–1521)Giovanni de MediciSon of Lorenzo de' Medici, and student of Angelo Poliziano.
His educator and mentor was the distinguished humanist and scholar, Angelo Poliziano. The “Gridiron” is the motto evidently refers to St. Lawrence, who was martyred on a gridiron. This is a rather elliptical allusion to Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was Giovanni’s father.[52]
C o a Papas Medicis.svg
Leo Florentius.Adrian. VI.Florẽtii filius, eius inſignia Leo.
22064. Florentian lionAdrian VI (1522–1523)Adriaen Florenszoon BoeyensSon of Florentius, his arms were a lion.
His coat of arms had two lions on it,[50] and his name is sometimes given as Adriaan Florens, or other variants, from his father's first name Florens (Florentius).
C o a Adriano VI.svg
Flos pilei ægri.Clemens. VII.Florentinus de domo medicea, eius inſignia pila, & lilia.
22165. Flower of the sick man's pill[53]Clement VII (1523–1534)Giulio de MediciA Florentine of the Medicean house, his arms were pill-balls and lilies.
The Medici coat of arms were emblazoned with six medical balls. One of these balls, the largest of the six, was emblazoned with the Florentine lily.[50]
C o a Papas Medicis.svg
Hiacinthus medicorũ.Paulus. III.Farneſius, qui lilia pro inſignibus geſtat, & Card. fuit SS. Coſme, & Damiani.
22266. Hyacinth of the physiciansPaul III (1534–1549)Alessandro FarneseFarnese, who bore lilies for arms, and was Cardinal of Saints Cosmas and Damian.
Pope Paul's coat of arms were charged with six hyacinths.[50]
C o a Paulo III.svg
De corona montana.Iulius. III.antea uocatus Ioannes Maria de monte.
22367. From the mountainous crownJulius III (1550–1555)Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del MonteFormerly called Giovanni Maria of the Mountain (de Monte)
His coat of arms showed mountains and palm branches laid out in a pattern much like a crown.[50]
C o a Gulio III.svg
Frumentum flocidum. [sic]Marcellus. II.cuius inſignia ceruus & frumẽtum, ideo floccidum, quod pauco tempore uixit in papatu.
22468. Trifling grainMarcellus II (1555)Marcello CerviniWhose arms were a stag and grain; 'trifling', because he lived only a short time as pope.
His coat of arms showed a stag and ears of wheat.[50]
C o a Marcello II.svg
De fide Petri.Paulus. IIII.antea uocatus Ioannes Petrus Caraffa.
22569. From Peter's faithPaul IV (1555–1559)Giovanni Pietro CaraffaFormerly called John Peter Caraffa.
He is said to have used his second Christian name Pietro.
C o a Paulo IV.svg
Eſculapii pharmacum.Pius. IIII.antea dictus Io. Angelus Medices.
22670. Aesculapius' medicinePius IV (1559–1565)Giovanni Angelo de MediciFormerly called Giovanni Angelo Medici.
His family name was Medici.
C o a Papas Medicis.svg
Angelus nemoroſus.Pius. V.Michael uocatus, natus in oppido Boſchi.
22771. Angel of the groveSt. Pius V (1566–1572)Antonio Michele GhisleriCalled Michael, born in the town of Bosco.
He was born in Bosco, (Lombardy); the placename means grove. His name was 'Antonio Michele Ghisleri', and Michele relates to the archangel.
C o a Pio V.svg
Medium corpus pilarũ.Gregorius. XIII.cuius inſignia medius Draco, Cardinalis creatus à Pio. IIII. qui pila in armis geſtabat.
22872. Half body of the ballsGregory XIII (1572–1585)Ugo BoncompagniWhose arms were a half-dragon; a Cardinal created by Pius IV who bore balls in his arms.
The "balls" in the motto refer to Pope Pius IV, who had made Gregory a cardinal. Pope Gregory had a dragon on his coat of arms with half a body.[50]
C o a Gregorio XIII.svg
Axis in medietate ſigni.Sixtus. V.qui axem in medio Leonis in armis geſtat.
22973. Axle in the midst of a sign.Sixtus V (1585–1590)Felice PerettiWho bears in his arms an axle in the middle of a lion.
This is a rather straightforward description of the pope's coat of arms.[50]
C o a Sisto V.svg
De rore cœli.Vrbanus. VII.qui fuit Archiepiſcopus Roſſanenſis in Calabria, ubi mãna colligitur.
23074. From the dew of the skyUrban VII (1590)Giovanni Battista CastagnaWho was Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria, where manna is collected.
He had been Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria where sap called "the dew of heaven" is gathered from trees.[54]
C o a Urbano VII.svg

Popes 1590 to present

For this group of Popes, the published text only provides names for the first three (i.e., those who were Popes between the appearance of the text in 1590, and its publication in 1595) and attempts no explanations.
Post-appearance Popes (1590–present)
Pope No.Motto (Translation)Regnal Name (Reign)NameHistorical Reference or ExplanationCoat of Arms
Ex antiquitate Vrbis.Gregorius. XIIII.
23175 Of the antiquity of the cityGregory XIV (1590–1591)Niccolo SfondratiHis father was a senator of the ancient city of Milan. The word "senator" is derived from the Latin senex, meaning old man.C o a Gregorio XIV.svg
Pia ciuitas in bello.Innocentius. IX.
23276 Pious city in warInnocent IX (1591)Giovanni Antonio FacchinettiHe was Patriarch of Jerusalem before succeeding to the Papacy.C o a Innocenzo IX.svg
Crux Romulea.Clemens. VIII.
23377 Cross of RomulusClement VIII (1592–1605)Ippolito AldobrandiniHe had been a cardinal with the title of Saint Pancratius, who was a Roman martyr.[55][56]C o a Clemente VIII.svg
Vndoſus uir.
23478 Wavy manLeo XI (1605)Alessandro Ottaviano De MediciHe had been the Bishop of Palestrina.[57] The ancient Romans attributed the origins of Palestrina to the seafaring hero Ulysses.[58] Also, he had only reigned for 27 days.C o a Papas Medicis.svg
Gens peruerſa.
23579 Corrupted nationPaul V (1605–1621)Camillo BorghesePope Paul scandalised the Church when he appointed his nephew to the College of Cardinals. The word "nepotism" may have originated during this pope's reign.[59]C o a Paulo V.svg
In tribulatione pacis.
23680 In the trouble of peaceGregory XV (1621–1623)Alessandro LudovisiHis reign corresponded with the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War.C o a Gregorio XV.svg
Lilium et roſa.
23781 Lily and roseUrban VIII (1623–1644)Maffeo BarberiniHe was a native of Florence, which has a red lily on its coat of arms.[60]C o a Urbano VIII.svg
Iucunditas crucis.
23882 Delight of the crossInnocent X (1644–1655)Giovanni Battista PamphiliHe was raised to the pontificate around the time of the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross after a long and difficult conclave.C o a Innocenzo X.svg
Montium cuſtos.
23983 Guard of the mountainsAlexander VII (1655–1667)Fabio ChigiHis family arms include six hills with a star above them.[61]C o a Alessandro VII.svg
Sydus olorum.
24084 Star of the swansClement IX (1667–1669)Giulio RospigliosiThe "star" in the legend refers Pope Alexander VII, who had made Clement his personal secretary.[61] The Italian word for swan, cigni, rhymes with Pope Alexander's surname, "Chigi."C o a Clemente IX.svg
De flumine magno.
24185 From a great riverClement X (1670–1676)Emilio AltieriPope Clement was a native of Rome.C o a Clemente X.svg
Bellua inſatiabilis.
24286 Insatiable beastInnocent XI (1676–1689)Benedetto OdescalchiPope Innocent had a lion on his coat of arms.[61]C o a Innocenzo XI.svg
Pœnitentia glorioſa.
24387 Glorious penitenceAlexander VIII (1689–1691)Pietro OttoboniHis first name was "Pietro", after the apostle Peter who had repented after having denied Christ thrice.C o a Alessandro VIII.svg
Raſtrum in porta.
24488 Rake in the doorInnocent XII (1691–1700)Antonio Pignatelli del RastrelloHis full name was Antonio Pignatelli del Rastrello.[62] "Rastrello" in Italian means "rake."C o a Innocenzo XII.svg
Flores circundati.
24589 Surrounded flowersClement XI (1700–1721)Giovanni Francesco AlbaniHe had been a cardinal with the title of Santa Maria in Aquiro.[63]C o a Clemente XI.svg
De bona religione.
24690 From good religionInnocent XIII (1721–1724)Michelangelo dei ContiA play on words, referring to the pope's regnal name. He was from the famous Conti family that had produced several Popes.C o a Innocenzo XIII.svg
Miles in bello.
24791 Soldier in WarBenedict XIII (1724–1730)Pietro Francesco OrsiniBefore he was pope there was a lot of wars in nearby countries, and it is possible he could have fought in one as a soldier.C o a Bennedetto XIII.svg
Columna excelſa.
24892 Lofty columnClement XII (1730–1740)Lorenzo CorsiniWhen still a cardinal, he had held the titular church of St Peter in Chains.[64] The name "Peter" is derived from the Greek word "petros," meaning "rock." Clement was a frustrated architect who ordered, and sometimes interfered with, the building of many churches. He managed to salvage two columns of the Parthenon for his chapel at Mantua.C o a Clemente XII.svg
Animal rurale.
24993 Country animalBenedict XIV (1740–1758)Marcello LambertiniMight be a play on words because of his famous laws about missions in the two papal bulls'‘.C o a Bennedetto XIV.svg
Roſa Vmbriæ.
25094 Rose of UmbriaClement XIII (1758–1769)Carlo RezzonicoHe had been a cardinal with the titular church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli.[65] In mystical circles, the Virgin Mary is represented by a rose.C o a Clemente XIII.svg
Vrſus uelox.
25195 Swift bear (later misprinted as Cursus velox Swift Course or Visus velox Swift Glance)Clement XIV (1769–1774)Lorenzo Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio GanganelliThe Ganganelli family crest bore a running bear.[4]C o a Clemente XIV.svg
Peregrin9 apoſtolic9.[66]
25296 Apostolic pilgrimPius VI (1775–1799)Giovanni Angelico BraschiSpent the last two years of his life in exile, a prisoner of the French Revolution.C o a Pio VI.svg
Aquila rapax.
25397 Rapacious eaglePius VII (1800–1823)Barnaba ChiaramontiThe Pope's pontificate was overshadowed by Napoleon, whose emblem was the eagle.C o a Pio VII.svg
Canis & coluber.
25498 Dog and adderLeo XII (1823–1829)Annibale Sermattei della Genga"Dog" and "snake" are common insults, and Leo was widely hated[citation needed]. The legend could be an allusion to the pope's last name, Sermattei. "Serpente" is the Italian word for snake.C o a Leone XII.svg
Vir religioſus.
25599 Religious manPius VIII (1829–1830)Francesco Saverio CastiglioniAnother play on words, referring to the pope's regnal name.C o a Pio VIII.svg
De balneis Ethruriæ.
256100 From the baths of TuscanyGregory XVI (1831–1846)Mauro, or Bartolomeo Alberto CappellariPope Gregory XVI belonged to the Camaldolese Order, which is said to have begun with two monastic houses. The first of these houses was Campus Maldoli, and the second was Fonte Buono, meaning "good fountain" in Italian.[67]C o a Gregorio XVI.svg
Crux de cruce.
257101 Cross from crossBl. Pius IX (1846–1878)Giovanni Maria Mastai FerrettiDuring his pontificate, the House of Savoy, whose coat of arms is a white cross on a red background, reunited Italy and stripped the pope of his territorial possessions. Pope Pius XII, commenting on the beatification process of Pius IX, used the words per crucem ad lucem (through the cross to light). Pius IX was finally beatified by Pope John Paul II in 2000.
C o a Pio IX.svg
Lumen in cœlo.
258102 Light in the skyLeo XIII (1878–1903)Gioacchino PecciHis coat of arms had a shooting star.[4]C o a Leone XIII.svg
Ignis ardens.
259103 Burning fireSt. Pius X (1903–1914)Giuseppe SartoPius advocated the codification of Canon law, daily communion and the use of Gregorian chant in the Catholic liturgy, and was an opponent of Modernism. He was the first pope to be declared a saint in over 400 years, the previous one being Pope Pius V.Pius X COA.svg
Religio depopulata.
260104 Religion destroyedBenedict XV (1914–1922)Giacomo Della ChiesaReigned during, but had no influence to stop, World War I. This unprecedented period of violence was mainly fought between the Christian powers of Europe, destroying empires which had lasted centuries and began the worldwide spread of atheistic Communism.[4]C o a Bennedetto XV.svg
Fides intrepida.
261105 Intrepid faithPius XI (1922–1939)Achille RattiEstablished Vatican City as a sovereign country with the papal office as head of state.C o a Pio XI.svg
Paſtor angelicus.
262106 Angelic shepherdVen. Pius XII (1939–1958)Eugenio PacelliReigning during World War II, he is reported to have covertly helped many Jews escape extermination in the Holocaust, though his role continues to be fiercely debated. Said to have received visions,[citation needed] some of which have yet to be revealed.[citation needed]Pius 12 coa.svg
Paſtor & nauta.
263107 Shepherd and sailorBl. John XXIII (1958–1963)Angelo Giuseppe RoncalliPatriarch of Venice, a maritime city (and a fomer naval power), from 1953 until 1958 (when he was elected Pope).John 23 coa.svg
Flos florum.
264108 Flower of flowersPaul VI (1963–1978)Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria MontiniHis coat of arms featured three fleurs-de-lis.[4]Paul 6 coa.svg
De medietate lunæ.
265109 From the midst of the moonJohn Paul I (1978)Albino LucianiHis month-long reign began with the moon half-full[citation needed].John paul 1 coa.svg
De labore solis.
266110 From the labour of the sunBl. John Paul II (1978–2005)Karol WojtyłaBorn (18 May 1920) on the day of a solar eclipse[68][69] and entombed (Friday April 8, 2005) on the day of a solar eclipse.[70] Writing before that second eclipse, Tony Allan had said that attempts to find a connection between 'from the labour of the sun' and John Paul II 'by pointing out that he came from Krakow, the birthplace of Copernicus, who first expounded the Earth's solar orbit, seem forced.' [4]John paul 2 coa.svg
Gloria olivæ.
267111 Glory of the olive.Benedict XVI (2005–2013)Joseph RatzingerChose the regnal name Benedict after St Benedict of Nursia, founder of the Benedictine Order. The order's crest contains an olive branch.[citation needed] Since 1960, one of (currently) 20 congregations in the Benedictine Confederation has been the Olivetans (founded in 1313), whose name ultimately derives from the Mount of Olives in the New Testament. Notably, Pope Benedict XVI is personally unaffiliated with the Olivetan order.BXVI CoA like gfx PioM.svg
In pſecutione extrema S.R.E. ſedebit.
In the extreme persecution of the Holy Roman Church, there will sit.[71]
Petrus Romanus, qui paſcet oues in multis tribulationibus: quibus tranſactis ciuitas ſepticollis diruetur, & Iudex tremẽdus iudicabit populum ſuum.[72] Finis.
268112 Peter the Roman, who will nourish the sheep in many tribulations; when they are finished, the city of seven hills will be destroyed, and the dreadful judge will judge his people. The end.UnknownUnknownThe Catholic Encyclopedia, an independent American research company, has said that, even if the prophecy is genuine, which it doubts, there may still be many Popes between Peter the Roman and his predecessor on this list.[73]